Explain the process of synthesis of food in green plants.

The process by which plants make food is named photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process in which green plants use sunlight to make their own food. Photosynthesis requires sunlight, chlorophyll, water, and carbon dioxide gas. Chlorophyll is a substance in all green plants, especially in the leaves. Plants take in water from the soil and carbon dioxide from the air.  Plants can perform photosynthesis only through leaves and not by other parts of the plant and they are called producers. They form the first level trophic level of the ecosystem. Leaves have a special green pigment called chlorophyll which helps in the absorption of energy from the sun. The chloroplast present in the cells plays a vital role in this process.

Steps involved in photosynthesis

The various steps involved in the process of photosynthesis are given below:

  • Absorption of light energy through the sun by chlorophyll present in leaves.
  • Conversion of light energy chemical energy. In this process, the water molecule splits into its respective components hydrogen and oxygen.
  • Carbon dioxide is reduced into carbohydrates like glucose by light energy utilizing the hydrogen and oxygen produced in the above step.


The reaction involved in photosynthesis is:

\(\begin{array}{l}6CO_{2} + 6H_{2}0\rightarrow C_{6} H_{12}O_{6} + 6O_{2}\end{array} \)

Glucose as a product in photosynthesis

Glucose is a simple food that is prepared first in the process of photosynthesis. Glucose and oxygen are the final products of photosynthesis. Starch is the food that gets stored in plant leaves. Starch is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units linked by glycosidic bonds. It acts as stored energy in plants.


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