Betatron is a particle accelerator. It is cyclic in nature as well as is used to accelerate electrons. Betatron is named after the name of electrons, as they are another called beta particles. It was developed by Donald Kerst in 1940 at the University of Illinois First circular accelerator that was discovered was cyclotron by Ernest Lawrence in 1940. However this accelerator couldn’t be used for accelerating electrons because these particles acquire a very high speed up to the order of relativistic speed.
Because of the variation in mass , time period as well as frequency will also start changing their value as well as hence it is not able to accelerate the particle It is concept is originated from Rolf Widroe who failed in the discovery of induction accelerator because of the lack of traverse focusing. It was the first machine to produce high energy electrons Betatron is actually a transformer. It has a torus shaped vacuum tube which acts as the secondary coil of the transformer. An alternating current is applied in the primary coil of the transformer. This accelerates the electrons in the vacuum tube around a circular
Betatron works under constant electric field as well as variable magnetic field. Some of the Applications of Betatron are:Provides high energy beam electrons of about 300 MeV. It can be used as a source of X rays as well as gamma rays if electron beam is made to direct on a metal plate. The X rays produced with the help of betatron can be used in industrial as well as medical fields. High energy electrons can be used in particle Physics. Possible solar flare mechanism. Betatron exhibits some limitations as follows:The maximum energy range imparted by it to electrons is limited by the strength of the magnetic field because of the saturation of iron as well as by the size of magnetic core practically Synchrotrons overcome these limitations of Betatron.