Explain the three pathways of the breakdown of glucose.

At first, glucose is broken down into three-carbon molecule called pyruvate. This process happens in the cytoplasm of cells of all organisms. On the basis of presence or absence of oxygen. (i) Aerobic respiration takes place in the mitochondria in the presence of oxygen. Pyruvic acid is converted into carbon dioxide, and water thus releasing a lot of energy. (ii) Anaerobic respiration takes place in the cytoplasm in the absence of oxygen. Pyruvic acid is converted either into CO2 and ethanol (in case of microbes, i.e., fermentation in yeast) or into lactic acid (in the case of muscle cells during sudden activity in humans.)

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