The Concept of Fundamental Duties was adopted from the Soviet Constitution(USSR) which is now called Russia. 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 added 10 Fundamental Duties to the Indian Constitution. 86th Amendment Act 2002 later added 11th Fundamental Duty to the list. Swaran Singh Committee in 1976 recommended Fundamental Duties, the necessity of which was felt during the internal emergency of 1975-77.
There are 11 fundamental duties in the 42nd Amendment Act of the Constitution in 1976. The 11 duties ae listed below
- To abide by the constitution and respect the national flag and the national anthem.
- To cherish the noble ideals which inspired our struggle for freedom.
- To uphold the sovereignty, unity and integrity of the country.
- To defend the country and render national service when called on to do so
- To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood among all the people of India.
- To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
- To protect and improve the natural environment includes lakes, rivers and Wildlife and have compassion for the living.
- To develop the scientific temper, humanism and “the spirit of inquiry and reform.
- To safeguard. Public property and abjure violence.
- To strive to achieve excellence in all spheres of individual and collective life so that the nation makes progress.
- To provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen years.