We all know that plants are the primary source of food for all the life forms o the earth. Plants make food by themselves and we all are dependent on plants for food. The process of preparation of food in plants is named as photosynthesis. Let us dive deep into this process.
What is photosynthesis?
The process by which plants make food is photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process in which green plants use sunlight to make their own food. Photosynthesis requires sunlight, chlorophyll, water, and carbon dioxide gas. Chlorophyll is a substance in all green plants, especially in the leaves. Plants take in water from the soil and carbon dioxide from the air. Autotrophs are the class of plants that are capable of preparing their own food.
Various steps involved in the process of photosynthesis
Given below are the various steps involved in the process of photosynthesis.
- Absorption of light energy through the sun by chlorophyll present in leaves.
- Conversion of light energy chemical energy. In this process, the water molecule splits into its respective components hydrogen and oxygen.
- Carbon dioxide is reduced into carbohydrates like glucose by light energy utilizing the hydrogen and oxygen produced in the above step.
Food in plants is synthesized in leaves hence they are often termed as food factories of the plant. Food production in leaves is as follows:
- Minerals and water in the soil is absorbed by roots and transported to leaves
- Atmospheric carbon dioxide enters the plants through stomata(small openings on the leaf surface)
- Leaves contain the pigment chlorophyll which helps the plant to capture solar energy which is used to synthesize food from water and carbon dioxide. This process of synthesis of food in the presence of sunlight is known as photosynthesis.
Reaction involved in photosynthesis
The process of photosynthesis can be represented as below in the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight
Glucose is the simple food which is prepared first in the process of photosynthesis. Glucose and oxygen are the final products of photosynthesis. Starch is the food that gets stored in plant leaves. Starch is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units linked by glycosidic bonds. It acts as stored energy in plants.
Where does photosynthesis occur in plants?
The organelle of plant cells in which photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast of plant cells. The photosynthetic pigment, chlorophyll is present in the chloroplast of the cell. It helps to absorb the solar energy. It converts the light energy into chemical energy and helps in the process of photosynthesis. The chloroplast organelle is present on the leaves of the plant.
Also, the point to be noted is during the process of photosynthesis, all the parts of the plant are involved in this process. The root system and the shoot system both are involved. The shoot system of the plant includes the stem and leaves of the plant. As we all know that the photosynthesis process is carried out in the presence of sunlight. The pigment called chlorophyll has the ability to absorb sunlight’s energy. These are present in the chloroplast of the plant cell.
Importance of photosynthesis
Photosynthesis plays a vital role in our environment. The whole life form is directly or indirectly dependent on the process of photosynthesis carried out by plants. If photosynthesis does not occur in plants then plants cannot synthesize the food. This causes the imbalance in the environment. The plants will not produce oxygen and then no animal life will be able to survive due to the absence of oxygen. We will not get oxygen, food, and life on this planet will be extinct.