How are water and minerals transported in plants?

The water from the soil reaches the leaves by the tissue called Xylem. The root hairs on the root, absorb water from the soil and through osmosis the water is transported to leaves through the tissue xylem.

Xylem- Fundamental tissue for transportation of water

Structure of xylem cells

In plants, minerals and water are transported through the xylem cells from the soil to the leaves. Mineral salts in the soil are absorbed into plants through roots, then these are translocated upwards along with water via the xylem. The xylem cells of the stem, roots, and leaves are interconnected forming a conducting channel reaching all plant parts. The root cells obtain ions from the soil which creates a difference in the concentration of ions between the roots and soil. Thus, there is continuous water movement into the xylem.

Osmosis in plants

Osmosis causes osmotic pressure, hence water and minerals are transported from one to another cell. Transpiration leads to a continuous water loss in addition to a suction pressure which is created due to water that is being forced into the xylem cells of the roots.

Transportation from roots

Water is transported to all parts of plants through roots. The transportation takes place in the following manner

  • Water through their roots is continuously absorbed by the plants. This water is sent up through the stem to all parts of the plant, including the leaves.
  • Only a little amount, of water, is retained in the plant or utilized by it in photosynthesis. The rest of it gets evaporated into the atmosphere as water vapour through the Stomata present in the epidermis of the leaves and other aerial parts of the plant.
  • This creates a suction pressure that pulls up water from the xylem of the roots to the stem and then to the leaves.
  • Xylem tissues are narrower in their diameter, in the form of capillary tubes (tracheids and fibres), greater will be the force.
  • Whenever the xylem vessels lay empty, such as during the loss of water by transpiration, the water from below rises into them by a capillary force.

Thus, it can be said that the xylem plays an important role in the transportation of water and minerals once they absorb these and transport them to different plant parts.

Check out the video given below to know more about plant tissues

Further Reading

  1. Write a summary on tissues
  2. What is plant tissue culture?
  3. Write a note on tissues


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