Diseases are disorders which causes one to develop discomfort in a specific region or throughout the body. This sense of uneasiness can be due to various reasons. We exhibit this through certain signs which are called as symptoms. Symptoms help physicians in accurately determining the diseases and hence prescribe a proper treatment or course of action.
The process of studying the symptoms in a person as a result of a disease is called diagnosis. The diagnosis can either occur through a physical examination or by reading briefly through the medical history of the patient. In some cases, tests are carried out to determine the underlying cause of a disease. The diagnosis helps in classifying a medical condition into separate categories which allows easy prognosis and treatment. Health care professionals carry out medical diagnostic procedures to suggest treatment and also suitable measures to prevent the occurrence of the same disease in the near future.
One of the first steps in carrying out a diagnostic procedure is the identification of medical indication. In a patient, any divergence from the normal state is first identified. It usually takes place by gauging and comparing the present condition of the patient with what is considered normalcy which aids in analyzing and quantifying the indication of a medical condition. The gait of a patient is another indication to the doctors which communicates about the discomfort and hence summons for diagnosis.
During an ongoing diagnosis, there could be a possibility to carry out another diagnostic procedure associated with some other condition which is often referred to as incidental finding of a symptom which may not be linked to the condition being tested for currently. Blood tests usually help in the diagnosis of more than one medical condition, if present (Anaemia, Thrombocytopenia)
Diagnostic procedures utilize numerous approaches such as:
- Differential algorithm
- Pattern recognition
- Diagnostic criteria
- Diagnostic workup
- Optical coherence tomography
- Medical algorithms
Laboratory tests are used to detect the presence of microorganisms or pathogens using a sample of urine, blood, sputum or tissues/fluids of the body. The samples can be any of these:
- Can be a cultured sample
- A sample is stained and examined under the microscope
- Different tests to detect antibodies
- Tests to detect different antigens of microbes
- Various tests to detect genetic matter of microbes
Not necessarily do tests accurately predict the presence of some microbes. Some tests can detect some microbes while the same test fails to detect other microbes hence doctors need to carefully prescribe a test which as per them is the most probable cause of a disorder.
Few samples taken from the patient’s body to detect medical disorders are:
- Cerebrospinal fluid
To know more about diagnosis and diseases, please register at BYJU’S