Climate change has the potential to affect buildings and built structures, slope stability, tailings and water retention structures, and site hydrology. The mining sector is extremely energy-intensive and one of the major emitters of greenhouse gases. Total CO2 emissions vary across the industry, largely depending upon the type of resource mined as well as the design and nature of the mining process. Mining is no stranger to harsh climates; much of the industry already operates in inhospitable conditions. The mining sector itself will also face pressure from governments, investors, and society to reduce emissions. Mining is currently responsible for 4 to 7 percent of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions globally.
Mining is a sector that is particularly vulnerable to climate change. Changing climatic conditions will have both direct (operational and performance-based) and indirect (securing of supplies and rising energy costs) impacts on the mining sector. It is widely recognized that available mining deposits are increasingly deeper and of declining ore grade. This will lead to growing demands for water as well as greater mine waste, thereby raising energy consumption