Pollination is a physical process, while Fertilization is a genetic and biochemical process. Flowering plants reproduce in two ways – pollination and fertilization.
- Pollination occurs through the transfer of pollen which is the male microgametes of seed plants, producing the sperm – from one plant to the stigma (the female reproductive organ) of another. The pollen grain takes up water and germination occurs. The germinated pollen grain sprouts a pollen tube, which grows and penetrates the ovule (the egg structure of the plant) through a pore called a mycropyle. The sperm is then transferred through the pollen tube from the pollen
- Fertilization can be defined as the fusion of the male gametes (pollen) with the female gametes (ovum) to form a diploid zygote. It is a physicochemical process which occurs after the pollination of the carpel.
- If the pollen grain meets the stigma, it produces a pollen tube that develops down through the style to the ovary, resulting in fertilisation.
- The pollen tube expands down the style to the ovary’s opening, where the male gamete is deposited at the egg. Every half of the genetic material required to form a zygote, that later develops into a new plant, is contained in the male and egg.
The former one is followed by a few plants, while the latter is a very common procedure and thus followed by almost every plant. Here are some differences between pollination and fertilization listed below.
The difference between pollination and fertilization
|Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to a stigma.||The fusion of male and female gametes is called fertilization.|
|Pollen can be transferred by an animal or by the wind.||Fertilization occurs once the pollen grain reaches the stigma, it produces a pollen tube, which grows down through the style to the ovary.|
|The process can be done by the plant itself or through outside agents.||For flowering plants, there can be no fertilization if there is no pollination. However, fertilization applies to almost every organism in this world.|