On a large scale, ammonia is manufactured by Haber’s process.
Haber’s process is basically one of the most efficient and successful industrial procedures to be adopted for the production of ammonia. In the Haber process, the atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is converted to ammonia (NH3) by reacting it with hydrogen (H2). Here a metal catalyst is used and high temperatures and pressures are maintained.
The raw materials for the process are
- Air, which supplies the nitrogen.
- Natural gas and water which supply the hydrogen and the energy needed to heat the reactants.
- Iron which is the catalyst and does not get used up.
The Haber process takes nitrogen gas from the atmosphere and combines it to form ammonia gas with molecular hydrogen gas.