Identify a member of porifera (a) Spongilla (b) Euglena (c) Penicillium (d) Hydra

a) Spongilla


Spongilla is classified under phylum Porifera. They belong to the class Demospongiae, characterized by the skeleton of spongin fibres, siliceous spicules or both.

  • Spongilla are found in freshwater, lakes and slow streams. They get attached to submerged plants, logs and sticks
  • They may be branched or unbranched and have numerous Ostia present all over the surface
  • The colour varies from light yellow to green. It depends on the amount of zoochlorella, a green alga (symbiotic association)
  • The outer surface is soft textured and supported by a skeleton of spicules, spongin fibres or both. Spicules may be simple, siliceous or tetraxial
  • They feed on small organic particles. Many insects feed on them
  • They reproduce sexually as well as asexually
  • Asexual reproduction is by budding or forming gem
  • Gaseous exchange and excretion is by diffusion

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