The soil is the top part of the earth’s surface that includes disintegrated rock, humus, inorganic and organic materials. Soil is classified based on size, colour and texture. Black soil is a type of soil that comes under the category of classification of soil based on colour.
Black soil is also referred to as cotton soil in India. As per international standards, it is known as ‘Tropical Chernozems’. Black soil is the third major group of soil found in India. As the name suggests the soil appears black in colour and hence it has gained its name as black soil.
Places where black soil is found
The black soil is majorly found in the parts of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Western parts of Madhya Pradesh, North- Western Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand up to Raj Mahal hills. The two popular plateaus that is the Deccan plateau and Malwa plateau also lie in the stretch of black soil.
Properties of black soil
Listed below are the properties of black soil
- The soil is rich in minerals like iron, lime, calcium, potash, magnesium and aluminium.
- The soil has a high water-retaining capacity.
- The soil has a fine texture and clayey nature.
- The soil is more fertile as compared to any other group of soil.
Crops that can be grown on black soil
Crops like cotton, tobacco, chilly, oil seeds, jowar, Craig, sugarcane and maize grow well in it.
Formation of Black Soil
Black soil is formed by the weathering or breaking process of igneous rocks. Then by cooling or solidification of lava originated from the volcano eruption. Hence, it is also called as the lava soil.