Golgi Complex also termed as Golgi Apparatus. It is a membrane-bound organelle, which is mainly composed of a series of flattened, stacked pouches called cisternae. This cell organelle is primarily responsible for transporting, modifying, and packaging proteins and lipid to targeted destinations. Golgi Apparatus is found within the cytoplasm of a cell and are present in both plant and animal cells.
The Golgi body comprises 5 to 8 cup-shaped, series of compartments known as cisternae. Cisternae is a flattened, disk-shaped, stacked pouches that make up the Golgi apparatus. A Golgi stack mostly contains 4 to 8 cisternae. However, ~60 cisternae are found in some protists. A mammalian cell contains ~40 to 100 stacks of cisternae. Animal cells generally contain around 10 to 20 Golgi stacks per cell, which are connected by tubular connections. Golgi complex is mostly found near the nucleus.
Listed below are the functions of Golgi complex
- The vital function of the Golgi apparatus is packaging and secretion of proteins.
- It receives proteins from Endoplasmic Reticulum.
- It packages it into membrane-bound vesicles, which are then transported to various destinations, such as lysosomes, plasma membrane or secretion.
- They also take part in the transport of lipids and the formation of lysosomes.
- Post-translational modification and enzymatic processing occur near the membrane surface in Golgi bodies, e.g. phosphorylation, glycosylation, etc.
- Golgi apparatus is the site for the synthesis of various glycolipids, sphingomyelin, etc.
- Complex polysaccharides of the cell wall are synthesised in the Golgi apparatus in plant cells.