List the elements having variable valency 1 and 3?

The elements Thallium and gold have valencies of 1 and 3. The electron configuration of thallium is [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p.

It is easy to remove the 6p electron and form Tl+.The 6s subshell contains the next-most easily removed electrons.

Removal of these electrons gives Tl3+ with electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10.

The electron configuration of gold is [Xe] 6s 4f14 5d10.

Remove the 6s electron and form Au+. The 5d subshell contains the next-most easily removed electrons.

Another common state of gold is Au3+ with electron configuration [Xe] 4f145d8.

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