Silicon is the most abundant material, but availability of special grade silicon used for making solar cell is limited.
A solar cell is a system that uses the photovoltaic effect to directly transform light energy into electrical energy. Solar cells, also known as photovoltaic cells, are produced using the photovoltaic effect. They convert sunlight into direct current (DC) electricity.
A solar cell is made of two types of semiconductors, called p-type and n-type silicon. The p-type silicon is produced by adding atoms such as boron or gallium that have one less electron in their outer energy level than does silicon.