The raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement are:
2. Lime stone
3. Sand, fly ash/pulverised fuel ash (PFA), or ironstone to achieve the desired bulk composition.
Portland cement gets its strength from chemical reactions between the cement and water. The process is known as hydration. Concrete is a hardened building material created by combining a chemically inert mineral aggregate (usually sand, gravel, or crushed stone), a binder (natural or synthetic cement), chemical additives, and water.