Name the three sub-atomic particles of an atom.


A subatomic particle is a particle with a size smaller than that of an atom. Protons, electrons, and neutrons are the three subatomic particles that typically make up an atom.


Nucleons are made up of protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus of an atom. The following are some key points about the discovery and properties of protons.

  • Protons are subatomic particles with a positive charge.
  • An atom’s number of protons is equal to the number of electrons.
  • Ernest Rutherford is recognized as identifying protons.
  • The removal of an electron from a hydrogen atom will produce protons.
  • A proton has a mass of 1.676 × 10-24 grams.
  • A proton has a charge of +1.602 × 10-19 Coulombs.


Electrons are subatomic particles that move around an atom’s nucleus. Ions are formed when electrons are extracted or gained from an atom. Chemical bonding occurs as electrons from various atoms come together.

  • Electrons are subatomic particles with a negative charge.
  • Both elements have an equal number of electrons and protons in their atoms.
  • J. Thompson is recognized as identifying electrons because he was the first to accurately measure an electron’s mass and charge.
  • The mass of an electron is negligible when compared to the mass of a proton. It is found to have a mass equal to (1/1837) times the mass of a proton.
  • An electron has a charge of -1.602 × 10-19 Coulombs.


The nucleons are made up of neutrons and protons. Neutrons get their name from the fact that, unlike protons and electrons, they have no charge.

  • Neutrons are neutrally charged subatomic particles.
  • The masses of two different isotopes of an element vary due to the difference in the number of neutrons in their respective nuclei.
  • The neutron was discovered by James Chadwick in the year 1932.
  • They were discovered in an experiment wherein a thin sheet of beryllium was bombarded with alpha particles.
  • The mass of a neutron is 1.676 × 10-24 grams.

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