The traditional occupation of India is agriculture. Agriculture is the backbone of the country. India was called self-sustainable country when agriculture was the backbone of the country. People residing in rural areas depend mostly on agriculture. It is the prime and primary sector of the Indian economy. The number of people depending on agriculture is highest in India.
Types of agriculture
Agriculture is divided into three categories
- Arable farming: A type of farming system in which crops are grown in fields. Example: Paddy, wheat, barley are the main crops grown by the Arable farming system.
- Pastoral farming: A type of farming system which is considered by producing livestock and raising animals. Beef, cattle’s, sheep’s, hens and other animals are examples of Pastoral farming animals.
- Mixed farming: A type of farming system that is the combination of both arable farming and pastoral farming.
Nowadays people are into the new trend of agriculture. The income and earning is the key factor for development. Hence plantation agriculture for farmers plays a main role in development. Plantation agriculture comes under the category of Commercial farming. Commercial farming mainly focuses on commercial crops that give a good amount of profit in return and they can be grown in all the seasons.
Plantation agriculture is a type of commercial farming in which a single crop is grown for the entire year. This type of farming requires large amount of labour and capital. The crop production may be further processed on the farm itself where it is grown or in nearby factories or small scale industries. A transport network is essential for such farming and hence such transport network is developed.
Major crops grown in plantation agriculture
- The major crops grown during plantation agriculture are Tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton.
- Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world.
- Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, Tea in India and Sri Lanka
The dominance of the agricultural sector during the colonial period
- Agriculture was the principal source of occupation.
- 75% population was engaged in agriculture, which resulted in backwardness of Indian economy at the time of Independence.
- The manufacturing industries and services sectors accounted for only 10 and 15-20 per cent respectively.
- The growth of all the three sectors simultaneously was unbalanced.
Later the colonial period the advancement of industries started and globalisation paid its impact on agriculture.
Globalisation is usually demonstrated to indicate the integration of the economy of the nation with the world economy, which is a multifaceted aspect. Globalisation is the final product of the collection of multiple strategies that are directed at transforming the world towards greater interdependence and integration. It comprises of the creation of networks and pursuits transforming social, economic and geographical barriers. Globalisation tries to construct links in such a manner that the events in India can be determined by events happening distances away.
Impact on agriculrure
- Globalisation is an old phenomenon.
- It started at the time of colonisation.
- In the nineteenth century when European traders came to India, during that time as well the Indian spices were exported to different countries of the world and farmers of south India were encouraged and enhanced to grow these crops.
- Till today it is one of the major items of export from India.
- Under globalisation, majorly after 1990, the farmers in India have been exposed to new challenges and task.
- Despite being an important and major producer of rice, cotton, rubber, tea, coffee, jute and spices, our agricultural products are not able to compete with the developed countries due to the highly subsidised agriculture in other foreign countries.
- Today, Indian agriculture marks itself at the crossroads.
- To make agriculture successful and profitable, proper and considerable amount of thrust should be given to the improvement of the condition of marginal and small farmers.