RNA is a ribonucleic acid that aids in protein synthesis in our bodies. In the human body, this nucleic acid is responsible for the formation of new cells. It’s normally extracted from a molecule of DNA. The only difference between RNA and DNA is that it only has one strand, while DNA has two, and it only contains a single ribose sugar molecule.
Types of RNA
There are several forms of RNA, out of which the most well-known and most commonly studied in the human body are:
tRNA – Transfer RNA
- The transfer RNA is held responsible for choosing the correct protein or the amino acids required by the body in-turn helping the ribosomes.
- It is located at the endpoints of each amino acid. This is also called as soluble RNA and it forms a link between the messenger RNA and the amino acid.
- The rRNA is the component of the ribosome and are located within the in the cytoplasm of a cell, where ribosomes are found.
- In all living cells, the ribosomal RNA plays a fundamental role in the synthesis and translation of mRNA into proteins.
- The rRNA is mainly composed of cellular RNA and are the most predominant RNA within the cells of all living beings.
mRNA – Messenger RNA
- This type of RNA functions by transferring the genetic material into the ribosomes and pass the instructions about the type of proteins, required by the body cells.
- Based on the functions, these types of RNA are called the messenger RNA. Therefore, the mRNA plays a vital role in the process of transcription or during the protein synthesis process.