The first Iron and steel plant was set up in India at Jamshedpur. Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited (TISCO) was the very first iron and steel industry in India. TISCO industry has played a major role in producing equipments during the first world war. It is located in Jamshedpur in Jharkhand. The industry is located on the banks of Subarnarekha and Kharkai river. These rivers help in the industrial uses and water treatment for the industry. TISCO stands for The Tata Iron and Steel Company. In started in the year 1912.
History of TISCO
In 1904, Charles Weld, an American geologist and Dorabji Tata, the eldest son of Jamsetji Tata, travelled to Chhattisgarh in search of iron ore deposits. These two wanted to set up a modern iron and steel plant in India. After travelling and exploring for months, Weld and Dorabji found Rajhara Hills that had one of the finest ores in the world. But the region was dry and there was no water connectivity nearby. So, the search continued and the Agarias helped in the discovery of a source of iron ore. Enormous area of forest was cleared on the banks of the river Subarnarekha to establish the factory and an industrial township at Jamshedpur. The Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) began and started producing steel in 1912. Prior to TISCO, India was importing steel that was manufactured in Britain. This industry brought a change in the situation by the time TISCO set up. In 1914 when the First World War broke out and steel produced in Britain had to meet the demands of the war in Europe. The war continued for several years, so TISCO had to produce shells and carriage wheels for the world war. TISCO became the largest steel industry within the British empire.
Merits of setting up TISCO at Jamshedpur
- Just 32 km away from Kalimati station on the Bengal-Nagpur railway line
- Close to the iron ore, coal and manganese deposits and also to Kolkata, that provided a large market
- TISCO receives coal from Jharia coalfields, and iron ore, limestone, dolomite and manganese from Odisha and Chhattisgarh
- The Kharkai and Subarnarekha rivers ensured sufficient and adequate water supply
- Government initiatives provided adequate and enough capital for its later development