Elements can be classified into metals and nonmetals and metalloids. Metals, Non -metals and Metalloids do not have a specific definitions. They are characterised based on their properties. Presented below are the various properties of metals, non metals nad metalloids
Majority elements in the periodic table are metals. This comprises of alkali metals, transition metals, lanthanides, actinides and alkaline earth metals. Metals are divided by nonmetals on a periodic table through a zigzag line starting from carbon, till radon. The elements between the two are phosphorus, selenium and iodine.
Listed below are properties of Metals
- At room temperature, they are usually solids (except mercury).
- They usually have high boiling and melting points.
- They are shiny having metallic lustre.
- They are good conductors of heat and electricity.
- They are malleable, that is, they can be hammered into thin sheets.
- They are ductile, that is, they can be drawn into wires.
- All the metals tend to lose electrons easily.
These are present on the right-hand side in the periodic table. Elements that come under non-metals are sulphur, carbon, all halogens, phosphorus, hydrogen, oxygen, selenium, nitrogen and noble gases.
Listed below are properties of Non metals
- Most non-metals are brittle and are not malleable or ductile.
- At room temperature, they are usually solids or gases.
- They usually have low boiling and melting points (except carbon and boron).
- They are poor conductors of heat and electricity.
- They are usually less dense when compared to metals.
- They tend to gain electrons during chemical reactions.
Elements presentbetween metals and non metalstermed as semimetals or metalloids. These will have the combined properties of both metals and nonmetals.
Listed below are properties of Metalloids
- Metalloids display some properties of metals as well as of non-metals. Hence, they are also known as semi-metals.
- Boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium are the most ordinarily recognized metalloids.
- These elements move diagonally across the Periodic Table.
- They may have a metallic or dull appearance.
- They are usually brittle and are fair conductors of electricity. They may gain or lose electrons during chemical reactions.
- They form alloys with metals.
- They are used as catalysts, biological agents, flame retardants, alloys and semiconductors in industries due to their unique properties.