The Aufbau principle dictates the manner in which electrons are filled in the atomic orbitals of an atom in its ground state.
It states that electrons are filled into atomic orbitals in the increasing order of orbital energy level. According to the Aufbau principle, the available atomic orbitals with the lowest energy levels are occupied before those with higher energy levels.
- According to the Aufbau principle, electrons first occupy those orbitals whose energy is the lowest. This implies that the electrons enter the orbitals having higher energies only when orbitals with lower energies have been completely filled.
- The order in which the energy of orbitals increases can be determined with the help of the (n+l) rule, where the sum of the principal and azimuthal quantum numbers determines the energy level of the orbital.
- Lower (n+l) values correspond to lower orbital energies. If two orbitals share equal (n+l) values, the orbital with the lower n value is said to have lower energy associated with it.
- The order in which the orbitals are filled with electrons is: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p, and so on.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
Pauli exclusion principle states that in a single atom no two electrons will have an identical set or the same quantum numbers (n, l, ml, and ms). To put it in simple terms, every electron should have or be in its own unique state (singlet state).
There are two salient rules that the Pauli Exclusion Principle follows:
- Only two electrons can occupy the same orbital.
- The two electrons that are present in the same orbital must have opposite spins or it should be antiparallel.
Hunds Rule of Maximum Multiplicity rule states that for a given electron configuration, the term with maximum multiplicity falls lowest in energy. According to this rule electron pairing in p, d and f orbitals cannot occur until each orbital of a given subshell contains one electron each or is singly occupied.
It states that:
- In a sublevel, each orbital is singly occupied before it is doubly occupied.
- The electrons present in singly occupied orbitals possess identical spin.
In simpler words the rule states that, for a stated electron configuration, the greatest value of spin multiplicity has the lowest energy term. It says if two or more than two orbitals having the same amount of energy are unoccupied then the electrons will start occupying them individually before they fill them in pairs.
All these above rules help in understanding the electron configurations and energy diagrams of the atoms.