The magnetic field weakly attracts paramagnetic substances.
Electrons that are alone in an orbital are called paramagnetic electrons. Paramagnetic properties are due to the realignment of the electron paths caused by the external magnetic field. Paramagnets do not retain any magnetization in the absence of an externally applied magnetic field because thermal motion randomizes the spin orientations—aluminium, platinum, manganese, chromium, sodium, calcium, lithium, tungsten etc.
Paramagnetism can further be of two types.
- In the first type, the magnetic moments are found in low concentrations, which leads to their separation from one another. Their spins also do not interact.
- In the second type, paramagnetism occurs due to the interactions between the magnetic moment, in this case. The interactions are fragile. Therefore, there is no net magnetization when the applied field is zero.
Properties of paramagnetic materials
- The magnetic dipole moment of paramagnetic substances is small and parallel to the magnetizing field.
- Magnetic susceptibility is small and positive.
- Magnetic field lines become denser inside paramagnetic substances.
- The magnetic field weakly attracts the substances.