Reproduction is a complex process and is a characteristic feature of all living entities. It is a biological process which is carried out to produce a new offspring which requires the involvement of the male and female gametes.
The female reproductive system is designed to carry out major functions in the reproduction process. It generates the female egg cells known as the oocytes or ova essential for reproduction. The structure of the system makes it easy to transport the oocyte to the position of fertilization. In the fallopian tube, the male sex cells i.e., the sperm fertilizes an egg for conception. The fertilized egg is then attached to the inner lining of the uterus, indicating the commencement of pregnancy. In the event where there is no sperm, menstrual cycles are initiated which occurs at regular intervals in healthy individuals. The reproductive cycle is maintained as the female reproductive system produces the sex hormones.
The external structure of the female reproductive system consists of two folds (Labia majora) which protect the internal genitals from harmful microbes and enables the entry of the sperm in the body. The ovaries carry out special functions of producing female eggs and secreting the estrogen and progesterone hormones essential in carrying out the functioning of the ovaries. These hormones stimulate the ovaries to produce hormones to regulate the release of eggs at regular intervals.
The embryo approaches the blastocyst phase after its journey through the fallopian tube for implanting the embryo to the inner wall of the uterus, where the development and nourishment of the embryo take place for a period of 9 months. This nourishment is brought about by the embryo which secrets a hormone called the HCG thereby indicating the uterine lining to stay intact and grow.
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