What are the different body systems in the human body and what are their functions?

Anatomy is the study of the structure of an object. Human anatomy deals with the way the parts of humans interact to form a functional unit. The human structure can be described as bipedal, with hair covering the body, presence of mammary glands and a set of extremely well-developed sense organs. With respect to human body anatomy, we have a specialized circulatory system that enables the efficient transport of materials and nutrients within the body.

Various systems in our body

Our human body comprises of various system. All these systems are interlinked and each one of them is associated with the other.

The different systems of our body include

  • Cardiovascular system
  • Endocrine system
  • Digestive system
  • Respiratory system
  • Excretory system
  • Lymphatic system
  • Nervous system
  • Muscular system
  • Skeletal system

Let us know about each of these systems in brief

Cardiovascular system

The circulatory system is also referred to as the cardiovascular system. It comprises the heart and all the blood vessels, arteries, capillaries, and veins. There are essentially two components of circulation, which are listed below

  • Systemic circulation
  • Pulmonary circulation

The vital function of the circulatory system is to transport blood to all parts of the body, which is extremely important because it carries nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones and blood cells which are required for the nourishment and growth the cells of every organ.

Endocrine system

Hormones are chemicals that affect a lot of the bodily functions ranging from hunger, reproduction and growth to much more complicated functions like human emotions and behaviour. These hormones are produced in our body through nine primary glands and these glands, along with other organs that provide auxiliary functions make up the endocrine system.

Digestive system

The digestive system breaks down food and assimilates nutrients into the body, which the body then uses for growth and cell repair. Human Digestive System and Nutrition involve the intake of food by an organism and its utilization for energy. This is a vital process which helps living beings to obtain their energy from various sources. The food which we eat undergoes much processing before the nutrients present in them are utilized to generate energy. This processing is known as digestion. Humans and other animals have specialized organs and systems for this process.

The major components of the digestive system are:

  • Mouth
  • Teeth
  • Tongue
  • Oesophagus
  • Stomach
  • Liver
  • Pancreas
  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Small and large intestines
  • Rectum

Respiratory system

The respiratory process involves the intake of oxygen, and the exhale of carbon dioxide from the body. This system is also known as the ventilatory system, gas exchange system or respiratory apparatus. Vertebrates like human beings possess lungs for respiration. The process of respiration starts with the cycle of inhalation and exhalation. The respiratory system comprises the following organs:

  • Trachea
  • Bronchi
  • Bronchioles
  • Lungs
  • Diaphragm

Excretory system

Different organisms follow different modes of excretion. In complex organisms including humans, there is a specialized system for excretion called human excretory system. The human excretory system organs include:

  • A pair of kidneys
  • A pair of ureters
  • A urinary bladder
  • A urethra

Lymphatic system

The lymphatic system is a network of lymph nodes connected by lymphatic vessels. This system transports lymph throughout the body. The whole body is encompassed with the lymph vessels similar to the blood vessels and has a complex nature. The cells of the body are supported really well by them as it receives oxygen and nutrients from the same. The lymph gets recirculated through the vessels themselves as they have no endpoint.

The three main functions of lymphatic system are given below

  • Maintains the balance of fluid between the blood and tissues, also called fluid homeostasis.
  • Forms a vital part of the body’s immune system and helps defend against bacteria and other intruders.
  • Facilitates the absorption of fats and fat-soluble nutrients in the digestive system.

Nervous system

The voluntary and involuntary actions are maintained and taken care of by the central nervous system. It helps to channel the signals to and from different parts of our body. Nervous System is broadly classified into two categories:

  • Central Nervous System
  • Peripheral Nervous System

The central nervous system contains the brain and the spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system includes nerves and ganglia that are present outside the brain and spinal cord. Through the axons, every part of the body gets connected.

Muscular system

The muscular system is an organ system, involved majorly in the movement of the body. There are nearly 700 muscles that are connected to the bones of the skeletal system, which roughly half make up the human’s body weight. Every muscle is a different organ made of blood vessels, skeletal muscle tissue, nerves, and tendons. Muscle tissues are found in the heart, blood vessels, and digestive system.

Skeletal system

The skeletal system functions as the basic framework of a body and the entire body are built around the hard framework of Skeleton. It is the combination of all the bones and tissues associated with cartilages and joints. Almost all the rigid or solid parts of the body are the main components of the skeletal system. This skeletal system can be divided into the axial and appendicular systems. In an adult body, it is mainly composed of 206 individual bones which are organized into two main divisions:

  • Axial skeleton
  • Appendicular skeleton

All these system function in well manner if each one of the system is well connected to each other. All these system cummalatively form the human body.

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