Intermolecular forces can be defined as the distance-dependent forces of attraction (and the forces of repulsion) that arise between atoms, molecules, and ions interacting with each other.
Types of intermolecular force
The important types of intermolecular forces are –
- London’s dispersion forces
- Dipole-dipole forces
- Dipole-induced dipole forces
- Hydrogen bonds.
- London’s dispersion forces arise due to a temporary dipole formation due to shifts in electron densities. These instantaneous dipoles induce the formation of a dipole in another atom or molecule.
- Dipole-dipole forces are the strongest intermolecular forces that arise due to the electrostatic interactions between two or more dipoles.
- Dipole-induced dipole forces arise due to the interactions between a dipole and an uncharged atom/molecule. The interaction with the dipole induces the formation of a dipole in the uncharged species.
- Hydrogen bonds can be considered a special type of dipole-dipole interaction. The differences in the electronegativities of hydrogen and another atom bound to it result in the bond’s permanent polarisation.