What are the functional components of the ecosystem?

There are essential functional components of the ecosystem:

Abiotic factors

Abiotic factors refer to all the non-living things present in the atmosphere. Abiotic factors include air, water, soil, sunlight, temperature.

Biotic factors

Biotic factors relate to all the living things in the ecosystem, including:


An organism that can prepare its food. Producers include all green plants and other autotrophs.


An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms. Consumers include all animals.


This organism feeds on dead and decaying matter, thus making organic nutrients available to the ecosystem. Decomposers include saprophytes such as fungi and bacteria, etc.

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