Some important physical features of India include:
- The Himalayas (Mountaneous region): The Himalayas are made up of a chain of very high mountain ranges that run from the northern, northeastern, and western parts of India. This mountain range can be divided into three smaller ranges, namely, the Himachal range, the Shiwaliks, and the Himadri range.
- The Northern Indian Plains (Flat region containing highly fertile soil): The northern Indian plains are made up of an extremely vast stretch of plains, alluvial terrain. The Northern Plains can again be divided into three significant parts. They are the Punjab Plains, the Ganga Plains and the Brahmaputra Plains. The soil in these terrains is highly fertile, making agriculture the primary occupation of the people who inhabit the northern plains.
- The Great Indian Desert (Desert region): The states of Gujarat and Rajasthan govern over the Thar Desert – a huge desert featuring dry climate and sandy terrain. It is interesting to note that the annual rainfall experienced by these regions is less than 150 mm per annum.
- The Peninsular Plateau (Includes the Deccan Plateau and the Central Highlands): These regions are known to be one of the oldest landmasses of India. The Deccan plateau covers the hilly region of the Western Ghats and the central highlands play host to the hilly region known as the Eastern Ghats. Eastern margin lies the Eastern Ghats.
- The Coastal Plains (Coastal Regions): The western coastal plains of India lie in between the Arabian ocean and the Western Ghats whereas the eastern coastal plains lie in between the Bay of Bengal and the Eastern Ghats.
- Islands: The two primary islands that fall under Indian territory include the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Lakshadweep Islands.