What are the properties of alluvial soil?

Alluvial soils are generally associated with river floodplains but alluvial soils are difficult to define satisfactorily because they may be developed on fluvial, lacustrine or marine deposits.

Nature of the soil

  • Their respective colours are due largely to the relative abundance of organic matter in the surface soil.
  • Alluvial soils are mainly associated with river floodplains.
  • Alluvial soils are hard to define satisfactorily as they are developed on fluvial, lacustrine or marine deposits.
  • They are also cloured into light and dark soils.

Composition of soil

Alluvial soil include

  1. Deltaic alluvium,
  2. Coastal alluvium and
  3. Inland alluvium.

Kinds o alluvial soil

Locally the alluvial soils are of two kinds – old and new. Bhangar and Khadar are the two kinds of the alluvial soil

Difference between Bhangar and Khadar

The Bhangar

  • These are older alluvial plain which represents upland alluvial tract.
  • These areas are well-drained and make it suitable for cultivation.
  • This area lies quiet above the flood limits of the neighbouring rivers.
  • The soil is rich in humus and it gives a high yield due to rich amount of minerals and humus in the soil.
  • It comprises of calcium carbonate nodules called ‘Kankars’ which are impure in nature.

The Khadar

  • The new plains formed due to alluvial deposit along the course of the river.
  • Enriched and formed by fresh deposits of silt every year.
  • The Khadar land silt comprises of silt, mud, clay, and sand.
  • The Khadar lands are suitable for the cultivation of sugarcane, rice, wheat, maize and oilseeds.

Properties of alluvial soil

  • The major soil profiles used for vegetable production.
  • We all know that erosion is a natural geological process that takes place repeatedly to smooth the earth’s surface and to provide the mineral for new sediments.
  • The alluvial soils are considered as the most productive of Indian soils.
  • It contributes the largest share of the agricultural wealth of our country.

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