Photosynthesis is a process by which green plants synthesize nutrients from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight. It involves the green pigment – chlorophyll, producing oxygen as a by-product.
The raw materials for photosynthesis are as follows:
- Carbon dioxide – through gaseous exchange carried out by stomata
- Water – roots absorb water from the soil provided by irrigation or even rains
- Sunlight – chlorophyll, the green pigment present in green plants, traps solar energy
Factors Affecting Photosynthesis
- Light Intensity: Increased light intensity results in a higher rate of photosynthesis. On the other hand, low light intensity results in a lower rate of photosynthesis.
- The concentration of CO2: Higher concentration of carbon dioxide helps in increasing the rate of photosynthesis. Usually, carbon dioxide in the range of 300 – 400 PPM is adequate for photosynthesis.
- Temperature: For efficient execution of photosynthesis, it is important to have a temperature range between 25° to 35° C.
- Water: As water is an important factor in photosynthesis, its deficiency can lead to problems in the intake of carbon dioxide. The scarcity of water leads to the refusal of stomatal opening to retain the amount of water they have stored inside.
- Pollution: Industrial pollutants and other particulates may settle on the leaf surface. This can block the pores of stomata, which makes it difficult to take in carbon dioxide.
Watch the video for more information on photosynthesis