What do you understand by bond pairs and lone pairs of electrons? Illustrate by giving one example of each type.

Answer:

In the formation of a covalent bond between two atoms, each atom will share one electron. The electrons present in the covalent bond are known as the bond pair of electrons.

Example: In methane, there are four covalent bonds and four pairs of bond pairs of electrons.

The pair of electrons left in the outermost valence shell without forming covalent bonds are known as lone pairs of electrons.

Example: Water molecule has two lone pairs of electrons.

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