When the temperature of a solution is increased, the average kinetic energy of the molecules that make up the solution also increases. This increase in kinetic energy allows the solvent molecules to break apart the solute molecules that are held together by intermolecular attractions more effectively. On increasing the temperature, the solubility increases, which means it can dissolve more solute in it.
Factors affecting solubility
Solubility is the maximum amount of a substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature. Two direct factors affect solubility: Temperature and pressure.
- Temperature affects the solubility of both solids and gases, but the pressure only affects the solubility of gases.
- Temperature can also increase the amount of solute that can be dissolved in a solvent.
- For all gases, as the temperature increases, solubility decreases.
- Pressure only affects the solubility of gases. Henry’s law states that, at a given temperature, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid.