- Phenotype is a term used in genetics to refer to all the observable traits in organisms as a result of the interaction of the genotype with the environment.
- The term ‘pheno’ in ‘phenotype’ refers to ‘observe’ and thus phenotype is used to indicate the observable characteristics in organisms like its height and colour.
- The phenotype of an organism covers the organism’s morphology, physical form and structure, its development and behaviour, its biological and physiological properties, and even the products of the organism.
- Thus, phenotypes are used to distinguish the differences in the DNA sequences between individuals with differences in traits like height.
- The genotype is a term used in genetics used to refer to the genetic composition of an individual consisting of heritable genes.
- The term ‘genotype’ also refers to the two alleles that are inherited for a particular gene.
- Genotypes are represented with alphabetical letters like Bb where B stands for the dominant allele and b stands for the recessive allele.
- The physical characteristics of an individual, called phenotypes, are a result of the expression of these genes.
- the genotype is not the only factor responsible for the difference in the phenotype, and phenotype is also affected by other factors like inherited epigenetics and environmental factors.
- Thus, neither all individuals with the same genotype look identical nor all individuals that look-alike has the same genotype.