What is a genotype and phenotype ratio?

Phenotype

  • Phenotype is a term used in genetics to refer to all the observable traits in organisms as a result of the interaction of the genotype with the environment.
  • The term ‘pheno’ in ‘phenotype’ refers to ‘observe’ and thus phenotype is used to indicate the observable characteristics in organisms like its height and colour.
  • The phenotype of an organism covers the organism’s morphology, physical form and structure, its development and behaviour, its biological and physiological properties, and even the products of the organism.
  • Thus, phenotypes are used to distinguish the differences in the DNA sequences between individuals with differences in traits like height.

Genotype

  • The genotype is a term used in genetics used to refer to the genetic composition of an individual consisting of heritable genes.
  • The term ‘genotype’ also refers to the two alleles that are inherited for a particular gene.
  • Genotypes are represented with alphabetical letters like Bb where B stands for the dominant allele and b stands for the recessive allele.
  • The physical characteristics of an individual, called phenotypes, are a result of the expression of these genes.
  • the genotype is not the only factor responsible for the difference in the phenotype, and phenotype is also affected by other factors like inherited epigenetics and environmental factors.
  • Thus, neither all individuals with the same genotype look identical nor all individuals that look-alike has the same genotype.

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