The major nitration product of benzoic acid is 3-nitrobenzoic acid or m- nitro benzoic acid.
Benzoic acid is an aromatic acid susceptible to normal electrophilic benzene ring replacement reactions such as nitration. The nitration of benzoic acid thus results in the formation of a compound called 3-Nitrobenzoic acid. As nitration is an electrophilic substitution reaction, the nitro group preferably enters the meta position. As a result, m-nitrobenzoic acid becomes the major product.
C6H5-COOH → C6H5-COOH-NO2 in the presence of HNO3 and H2SO4