Polymers are large molecules called macromolecules consisting of numerous repeating structural units called monomers having different functional groups. A monomer is a small molecule that can be combined to form a polymer through a reaction.
The carbon atoms of the polymer backbone or chain are attached to the monomers in an organic polymer. A polymer may also be inorganic, in which case, in place of carbon atoms, there may be atoms such as silicon.
A biological macromolecule is present in living organisms. This contains molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. They are essential for the survival of all known life forms. The temperature dependence of the process of polymerisation is very different from that of standard inorganic reactions. At low temperatures, there is no polymerisation and at high temperatures polymerisation occurs.