What is reversible isothermal expansion? Give an example

An isothermal process is a process which is conducted in a manner such that the temperature remains constant during the entire operation.

The reversibly expansion of the gas takes place in a finite number of infinitesimally small intermediate steps.

To start with the external pressure, is arranged equal to the internal pressure of the gas P ext and the piston remains stationary.

If Pext is decreased by an infinitesimal amount dP the gas expands reversibly and the piston moves through a distance dl.

Since dP is so small, for all practical purposes

hence, P ext = P gas = P The work done by gas in one infinitesimal step (dw), can be expressed as:

dw = P x A x dl (A = cross-section area of piston)

P x dV

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