Screening Effect Definition:
The screening effect is also known as the shielding effect. The phenomenon occurs when the nucleus reduces its force of attraction on the valence electrons due to the presence of electrons in the inner shell. This is known as a screening effect. Outer electrons experience attraction from the nucleus and repulsion from the inner electrons. As the attraction between the nucleus decreases, the repulsion increases between the inner electrons and outer electrons.
- The shielding effect is also defined as the reduction in the effective nuclear charge on the electron cloud. It is a special type of electric field screening.
- The wider the electron shells in the space, the weaker the electronic interaction between the electron and the nucleus due to the screening.
- Higher is the nuclear force of attractions, greater is the ionization enthalpy required. Thus, the screening effect is inversely proportional to ionization enthalpy.
- In general, the screening effect in the shells is: s>p>d>f