Sucrose is the sugar which is known as table sugar. Sucrose is found in all photosynthetic plants. It is commercially obtained from sugarcane and sugar beets via an industrial process. The molecular formula of sucrose is C12H22O11. Sucrose comprises α form of glucose and β form of fructose. It is formed by condensation the reducing carbon atoms of glucose (C1 – α) and fructose (C2 -β). The glycosidic in a sucrose molecule linkage is 1α-2β linkage. On hydrolysis by acids or invertase enzyme, sucrose gives one molecule each of D-Glucose and D-Fructose. Sucrose is dextrorotatory, with a specific rotation of +66.5%, D-glucose has a positive specific rotation of, [α]D = +53°, while D-fructose has negative rotation of [α]D = -92°. The hydrolyzed mixer has an equal concentration of glucose and fructose with negative rotation. Hence the mixture is called invert sugar.
- Sucrose is combined at the hemiacetal oxygen and does not have a free hemiacetal hydroxide.
- Sucrose is a non-reducing sugar.
- Does not show mutarotation (α to β conversion).
- Sucrose also does not form osazones for the same reason.