What is the electrophile in nitration of benzene reaction?

Answer:

The electrophile in nitration of benzene reaction is NO2+.

Nitration of benzene

In the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid, benzene reacts with concentrated nitric acid to form nitrobenzene at 323-333K. Nitration of benzene is the name for this reaction.

Nitration of benzene

The mechanism for nitration of benzene

Step 1: Nitric acid accepts a proton from sulphuric acid and then dissociates to form nitronium ion.

Mechanism for nitration of benzene

Mechanism for nitration of benzene

Step 2: The nitronium ion acts as an electrophile in the process which further reacts with benzene to form an arenium ion.

Mechanism for nitration of benzene

Step 3: The arenium ion then loses its proton to Lewis base forming nitrobenzene.

Mechanism for nitration of benzene

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