What is the maximum covalency of first elements of each group ?

The maximum valency for elements not having d orbital is equal to the number of unpaired electrons present in the valence shell of s and p orbital. The covalency is determined by the number of electrons shared while forming a chemical compound.

The maximum covalency of the first elements of each group is 4. This is because of the following reasons:

  • Small atomic size
  • No vacant d orbitals
  • Highly electronegative

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