Fertilization involves the fusion of the male and the female gamete. The male and the female gametes are released from the male and the female reproductive organs.
Fertilisation in Humans
Sperms or male gametes are released from the male reproductive organ i.e., the penis. These sperms then enter the female body through the vagina. Then, they travel through the fallopian tubes where they meet the eggs. Hence, the process of fertilization takes place in the fallopian tubes. During fertilization, the haploid nucleus of the sperm and that of the ovum fuse with each other to form the zygote. This zygote divides to form an embryo which in turn develops into a foetus.
Fertilization in plants
Fertilization in plants occurs after pollination and germination. Pollination occurs through the transfer of pollen which is the male microgametes of seed plants, producing the sperm – from one plant to the stigma (the female reproductive organ) of another. The pollen grain takes up water and germination occurs. The germinated pollen grain sprouts a pollen tube, which grows and penetrates the ovule (the egg structure of the plant) through a pore called a mycropyle. The sperm is then transferred through the pollen tube from the pollen.