Cells fall into one of two broad categories: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Prokaryotes (pro– = before; –karyon– = nucleus). Animal cells, plant cells, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (eu– = true).
A eukaryotic cell is a cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-bound compartments or sacs, called organelles, which have specialized functions. Both animals and plants are eukaryotes. Despite their fundamental similarities, there are some striking differences between animal and plant cells. The small size of prokaryotes allows ions and organic molecules that enter them to spread to other parts of the cell quickly.
- The cell has mitochondria.
- Flagella and cilia are the locomotory organs in a eukaryotic cell.
- The eukaryotic cells contain a cytoskeletal structure.
- A cell wall is the outermost layer of the eukaryotic cells.
- The nucleus contains a single, linear DNA, which carries all the genetic information.