What is the Working Principle of a Transformer?


A transformer is a device used in the power transmission of electric energy. The transmission current is AC. It is commonly used to increase or decrease the supply voltage without a change in the frequency of AC between circuits. The transformer works on basic principles of electromagnetic induction and mutual induction.

Working principles of transformer

  • A transformer operates on the principle of mutual inductance, between (and sometimes more) inductively coupled coils. It consists of two winding in proximity.
  • The two winding are coupled by magnetic induction. (There is no conductive connection between the winding).
  • One of the windings call primary is energized by a sinusoidal voltage.
  • The second winding, called secondary feeds the load.
  • The alternating current in the primary winding steps up an alternating flux in the core.
  • The secondary winding is linked by most of this flux and EMFs.
  • Energy is transformed from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit through the medium of the magnetic field.

In brief, a transformer is a device that:
(a) transfer electric power from one circuit to another, (b) it does so without change of frequency; and (c) it accomplishes this by electromagnetic induction (or mutual inductance)

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