The nucleic acids present in the nuclei of living cells are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). They are hereditary inheritance engines. DNA is composed of deoxyribonucleotide building blocks, each containing a base: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) or guanine (G).
Nucleic acids, especially DNA, are key macromolecules for life’s continuity. DNA carries the genetic information transmitted from parents to children, offering guidance on how (and when) to produce the many proteins needed to build and maintain healthy cells, tissues, and organisms.
The other nucleic acid type, RNA, is mainly involved in the synthesis of proteins. The molecules of DNA never enter the nucleus but use an intermediary instead to communicate with the rest of the body. Certain forms of RNA are involved in protein synthesis and its regulation, such as rRNA, tRNA, and microRNA.