Chromosomes are thread-like structures present in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, which carries genetic information from one generation to another. They play a vital role in cell division, heredity, variation, mutation, repair and regeneration.
Each chromosome is made of proteins and a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Chromosomes have been defined as bundles of tightly coiled DNA located within the nucleus of almost every cell in our body. This unique structure of the chromosome keeps DNA tightly wrapped around spool-like proteins, named histones.
Functions of chromosomes
Listed below are the functions of chromosomes.
- The main function of chromosomes is to carry the genetic material from one generation to another.
- Chromosomes play an important role and act as a guiding force in the growth, reproduction, repair and regeneration process, which is important for survival.
- Chromosomes protect the DNA from getting tangled and damaged.
- Histone and non-histone proteins help in the regulation of gene expression.
- Spindle fibres attached to the centromere help in the movement of the chromosome during cell division.
- Each chromosome contains thousands of genes that precisely code for multiple proteins present in the body.