A maximum bond angle of 180° is possible for sp hybridization.
Hybridization and its types
Redistribution of the energy of orbitals of individual atoms to give orbitals of equivalent energy happens when two atomic orbitals combine to form a hybrid orbital in a molecule. This process is called hybridization. Based on the types of orbitals involved in mixing, the hybridization can be classified as sp3, sp2, sp, sp3d, sp3d2, sp3d3.
- sp hybridization involves mixing one ‘s’ orbital and one ‘p’ orbital of equal energy to give a new hybrid orbital known as an sp hybridized orbital. Example: BeF2, BeH2, BeCl2
- sp2 hybridization is observed when one s and two p orbitals of the same shell of an atom mix form 3 equivalent orbital. The new orbitals formed are called sp2 hybrid orbitals. Example: BF3, BH3
- When one ‘s’ orbital and 3 ‘p’ orbitals belonging to the same shell of an atom mix together to form four new equivalent orbital, the type of hybridization is called a tetrahedral hybridization or sp3. Example: ethane (C2H6), methane.
- sp3d hybridization involves mixing 3p orbitals and 1d orbital to form 5 sp3d hybridized orbitals of equal energy. Example: PCl5
- Sp3d2 hybridization has 1s, 3p and 2d orbitals that undergo intermixing to form 6 identical sp3d2 hybrid orbitals.