The tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract the shared pair of electrons towards itself is known as electronegativity. The property of electronegativity show the tendencies of atoms in different elements to attract the bond-forming electron pairs.
Factors Affecting Electronegativity
- Size of an Atom
- Nuclear Charge
- Effect of Substituent
Measurement of electronegativity
Electronegativity is measured on several scales. The most commonly used scale was designed by Linus Pauling.
Most electronegative element
Fluorine is the most electronegative element on the periodic table. Its electronegativity value is 3.98.
A fluorine atom needs only one electron to fill its outer electron shell and achieve stability. Due to this reason free fluorine exists as the F– ion.