Which law gives quantitative measurement of the force?

Newton’s second law of motion gives the quantitative measurement of force.

Newton’s Second Law of Motion

Newton’s second law states that the acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.

Mathematically, we express the newton’s second law of motion as follows:

$$f\propto \frac{dP}{dt}\\ \\ \Rightarrow f\propto \frac{mv-mu}{t}\\ \\ \Rightarrow f\propto\frac{m(v-u)}{t}\\ \\ \Rightarrow f\: \propto \: ma\\ \\ \Rightarrow f=k\, ma$$
In the above equation, k is the constant of proportionality. The value of k is equal to 1 when the values are taken in SI unit. Hence, the final expression will be,

F = ma