Trans-dichlorobenzene has zero dipole moment as it is symmetrical and the dipole moment will cancel out.
A dipole moment arises in any system in which there is a separation of charge. They can, therefore, arise in ionic bonds as well as in covalent bonds. Dipole moments occur due to the difference in electronegativity between two chemically bonded atoms.
A bond dipole moment is a measure of the polarity of a chemical bond between two atoms in a molecule. It involves the concept of electric dipole moment, which is a measure of the separation of negative and positive charges in a system.
Factors affecting dipole moment
- Polarity of molecule
- Magnitude of charge
- Geometry of molecule
- The boiling point of the element.
- Position of bond and lone pair of electrons in a molecule.
- The dipole moment depends upon the bond length.