Which of the following compounds has zero dipole moment? (A) 1,4−dichlorobenzene (B) 1,2−dichlorobenzene (C) 1,3−dichlorobenzene (D) 1−chloro−2−methylbenzene

Trans-dichlorobenzene has zero dipole moment as it is symmetrical and the dipole moment will cancel out.

Explanation

A dipole moment arises in any system in which there is a separation of charge. They can, therefore, arise in ionic bonds as well as in covalent bonds. Dipole moments occur due to the difference in electronegativity between two chemically bonded atoms.

A bond dipole moment is a measure of the polarity of a chemical bond between two atoms in a molecule. It involves the concept of electric dipole moment, which is a measure of the separation of negative and positive charges in a system.

Factors affecting dipole moment

  • Polarity of molecule
  • Magnitude of charge
  • Geometry of molecule
  • The boiling point of the element.
  • Position of bond and lone pair of electrons in a molecule.
  • The dipole moment depends upon the bond length.

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