Waxy substances on epidermis called cuticle.
The cuticle covering the epidermis protects the plant body against the invasion of parasites and other harmful agents. Epithelial tissue is the protective covering of the body. Other adaptations are:
- Leaf hair – deflects some light and maintains a cool plant temperature
- Cuticle – it is an epidermal layer in vascular plants, cells of this layer release cutin – a waxy substance, preventing water loss from stomata
- Stomata – guard cells surrounding stomata cause a doorway effect, either increasing or decreasing in size. When there is an increase in the guard cells, stomata are sealed, thus keeping the water
- Association with microbes – a symbiotic association of plants with some microbes (mycorrhizae) enables these microbes to help the roots mine for moisture deep inside the soil